Wagner, III showed that male adolescents who participated in football were significantly more likely to hold homophobic attitudes than other peers their age. In spite of the apparent prevalence of homophobic thinking in athletic culture, recent scholars have documented an increasing trend toward openly gay athletes in high school and collegiate level sports.
General aspects[ edit ] Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
Innate bisexuality Innate bisexuality is an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. According to this theory, all humans are born bisexual in a very broad sense of the term, that of incorporating general aspects of both sexes. In Freud's view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being one part of this psychological bisexuality.
Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that as adults everyone still has desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures.
Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. To date, a lot of research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and cultural influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex role in forming it.
It was once thought that homosexuality was the result of faulty psychological development, resulting from childhood experiences and troubled relationships, including childhood sexual abuse.
It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Biology and sexual orientation Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure. No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area.
Current scientific investigation usually seeks to find Sexuality in sports explanations for the adoption of a particular sexual orientation. A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor,  while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental factors.
The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation.
Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.
Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions.
The default developmental pathway for a human fetus being female, the Y chromosome is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male developmental pathway. This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT.
The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in driving the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain.
This results in sexual differences between males and females. Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children. This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. However, research suggests that this may be of immunological origin, caused by a maternal immune reaction against a substance crucial to male fetal development during pregnancy, which becomes increasingly likely after every male gestation.
As a result of this immune effect, alterations in later-born males' prenatal development have been thought to occur. This process, known as the maternal immunization hypothesis MIHwould begin when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth.
These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment.
From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood—brain barrier of the developing fetal brain, altering sex-dimorphic brain structures relative to sexual orientation, causing the exposed son to be more attracted to men over women.
Environment and sexual orientation There is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that early childhood experiences, parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation.
However, studies do find that aspects of sexuality expression have an experiential basis and that parental attitudes towards a particular sexual orientation may affect how children of the parents experiment with behaviors related to a certain sexual orientation. A variety of theories about the influences on sexual orientation have been proposed.
Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts.
Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation.
Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.
The Royal College of Psychiatrists in stated: It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice, though sexual behaviour clearly is.
The American Psychiatric Association stated: Homosexuality was once thought to be the result of troubled family dynamics or faulty psychological development. Those assumptions are now understood to have been based on misinformation and prejudice. The evaluation of amici is that, although some of this research may be promising in facilitating greater understanding of the development of sexual orientation, it does not permit a conclusion based in sound science at the present time as to the cause or causes of sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
Efforts to change sexual orientation[ edit ] Main articles: Sexual orientation change efforts and Conversion therapy Sexual orientation change efforts are methods that aim to change a same-sex sexual orientation.
They may include behavioral techniques, cognitive behavioral therapyreparative therapypsychoanalytic techniques, medical approaches, and religious and spiritual approaches.Introduction.
Unethical actions, decisions, and attitudes in a sporting context are in direct conflict with the ideals of sport. Ethical behaviour that is characterised by inclusion, fairness, and respect - regardless of someone’s known/assumed sexual identity or whether they are born or living as a male or female - is embedded in sporting values.
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5 years ago The New Porn. sport. Call it the double standard of sports sexuality: Male athletes can't be gay, but females are assumed to be. Far from shocking our sensibilities, Brittney . The links between ideology, female sexuality and physical activity are central to the analysis of women and sport.
Attitudes and practices surrounding female sporting participation constitute an important component in the social construction of . Sexual imagery abounds throughout Alien, transferred from the asexual, de-gendered crew to other aspects of the heartoftexashop.com the crew goes out in search of the beacon they find a ship that is constructed to resemble the lower half of a body, it’s "legs" angled up towards the heavens.
Most international sports organisations work on the premise that human beings come in one of two genders: male or female.
Consequently, all athletes, including intersex and transgender individuals, must be assigned to compete in one or other category. Since the s (not, as is popularly suggested.