September 11, by Saugat Adhikari In the course of human evolution, at a certain point in time, the idea of living in a group with mutual understanding and dependency became a very useful and practical lifestyle. From such small isolated groups, communities were formed. Then came the societies which in due time became a civilization. How the human mentality and psychology led to this huge change is still a popular topic among the historians and anthropologist, and a major discussion for another day.
Text Intro Just to give a brief explanation of the Ugaritic texts, which are the primary comparison texts, they date from the 14th century BCE and before. The following is a list of the Ugaritic text abbreviations. Unfortunately there are different notation systems created by different authors, for the same text.
As I stated earlier, these deities cross borders harappan writing and record keeping boundaries, taking beliefs with them, merging and carrying on through time.
History Timeline BC: Before the Common Era. To fully understand what history has to offer, sometimes we need to take a couple of steps back to view its bigger picture. Indus Valley writing. Seals and Harappan script; All topics on Indus Valley. Teachers' Resources. record A record is information or data that has been collected and kept. Record Keeping and the Origins of Writing in Mesopotamia. June 30, Darci Clark. In her essay on the token system, “Record Keeping Before Writing,” Denise Schmandt-Besserat says, “It is remarkable that the first writing system developed from a counting technology.” The simple system of using tokens to represent agricultural.
Rather, developmental process began, at the latest, at the end of the Bronze Age, gained momentum during the Iron Age, and finally issued it in a practical, and at certain points, even theoretical, monotheism.
It seems that particular gods or better, their priesthoods gobbled up other gods, so to speak, and so took over their functions and identities. Thus eventuated a monopoly on divine worship — a development that certainly also had something to do with economic and political interests.
The old branch of Egyptian monotheism that Lemeche is referring to is that of the primal creator Ptah, before the later Egyptian trinity was formed and the solar aspects were mainly attributed to Ra, said to be the son of Ptah. We cannot limit our research to one time, one location or one belief; not if we want to find the truth.
They are not epics like Homers works, but deal more with history, astronomy, ethics, genealogies, farming, metal works, etc.
One particular passage that I would like to share is for the historical application of the Indo-European patriarchal changes that swept so much of the land, but also for the obvious example of yet harappan writing and record keeping assimilation of another cultures writings and beliefs by a patriarchal priesthood scribe for the Bible.
This Hesiod writing is important because it actually relates information about the lands and peoples, their state of affairs prior to the patriarchal takeovers that Hesiod relates as the men of bronze, the time of warfare and heroes.
Archaeologically, this pattern of events and metal usage is confirmed, though Hesiod would not have had many written records from the golden age, to reference. This patriarchal wave is further explained in the Clan Mother to Goddess section below.
The biblical passage is that of Daniel 2, the supposed dream by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babel. The dream is about a statue of various metals on the body parts. Daniel interprets what these metals mean, representing different kingdoms that are, and will come to pass.
This is not the study to provide all the linguistic, historical and archaeological evidence to this fact. The book states that the head was gold, representing the Babylonians. The chest and arms were silver, representing the Medes and Persians.
The belly and thighs were bronze, representing the Hellenes [Greeks] and the legs of iron and feet mixed of iron and clay, representing a worse, inferior government, strong, crushing and breaking everything. This is the time period the book is actually written and for self preservation, does not name the then current Roman government.
In chapter 7, another dream is provided about 4 beasts, each again representing the governments. The 4th beast was more terrifying and frightening, very powerful with large iron teeth that crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot anything that was left.
The following Hesiod account, written over years before the book of Daniel, is in Works and Days, versesbased on the translation by Dorothea Wender. The gods, who live on Olympiafirst fashioned a golden race of mortal men; these lived in the reign of Kronos, king of heaven, and like the gods they lived with happy hearts untouched by work or sorrow.
Vile old age never appeared, but always lively-limbed, far from all ills, they feasted happily. Death came to them as sleep, and all good things were theirs; ungrudgingly, the fertile earth gave up her fruits unasked.
Happy to be at peace, they lived with every want supplied, rich in their flocks, dear to the blessed gods. And then this race was hidden in the ground. But still they live as spirits of the earth, holy and good, guardians who keep off harm, givers of wealth; this kingly right is heirs.
The gods, who live on Olympianext fashioned a lesser, silver race of men; unlike the gold in stature or in mind. When they were grown and reached their prime, they lived brief, anguished lived, from foolishness, for they could not control themselves, but recklessly injured each other and forsook the gods; they did not sacrifice, as all tribes must, but left the holy altars bare.
And, angry, Zeus the son of Kronos, hid this race away, for they dishonored the Olympian gods. This passage represents the Indo-European patriarchal perspective of a matrilineal society, where the children were considered the offspring of the mother and were raised in equalitarian, agriculture societies, not warfare, weaponry training of the hero worshipping PIE cultures.
These cultures were invaded and wiped out or partly assimilated by the PIE cultures bringing the Olympian religion to the Greek territories. An archaeological example of their entering the territory of Kenaan is that of the marked increase in shrines and temples.
This is the same pattern that occurs archaeologically in all these invaded cultures. The earth then hid this second race, and they are called the spirits of the underworld, inferior to the gold, but honored, too.
And Zeus the father made a race of bronze, sprung from the ash tree, worse than the silver race, but strange and full of power. And they loved the groans and violence of war; they ate no bread; their hearts were flinty hard; they were terrible men; their strength was great, their arms and shoulder and limbs invincible.
Their weapons were of bronze, their houses bronze; their tools were bronze; black iron was not known. Although they were great soldiers, they were captured by black Death, and left the shining brightness of the sun.The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilisation during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between and BCE.
Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing . The Shunga kingdom. Magadha was the nucleus of the Shunga kingdom, which succeeded the Mauryan.
The kingdom extended westward to include Ujjain and heartoftexashop.com Shungas came into conflict with Vidarbha and with the Yavanas, who probably were Bactrian Greeks attempting to move into the Ganges valley.(The word yavana derives from the Prakrit yona, suggesting that the Ionians were the first .
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• Record Keeping: no records of political history, no one can read Harappan writing, stamps + seals, Indus script = pictorial + can't be deciphered no one can read Harappan writing, stamps + seals.
Couscous Ancient fare? Not quite. "Couscous is a North African staple as far east a Tripoli, and particularly in Morocco and Algeria, where the local name for . The Incas was the largest Empire in South America in the Pre-Columbian era.
This civilization flourished in the areas of present-day Ecuador, Peru, and Chile and had its administrative, military and political center located at Cusco which lies in modern-day Peru.
Indus Valley civilization The Indus valley is now located in Pakistan and India. The civilization started in and lasted until B.C., along the same time as the Nile river and Tigris and Euphrates civilizations occurred. It was the biggest civilization at the time.
-Writing and Record Keeping –.