Other perspectives[ edit ] A number of critical responses to Mezirow's theory of transformative learning have emerged over the years. Some studies support Mezirow. Others conclude that Mezirow grants rational critical reflection too much importance. Taylor  has since suggested neurobiological research as a promising area that may offer some explanation about the role emotions play, closing the gap between rationality and emotion in the transformative learning process.
There has been generally a growing awareness of the necessity to change and improve the preparation of students for productive functioning in the continually changing and highly demanding environment. In confronting this challenge it is necessary to consider the complexity of the education system itself and the multitude of problems that must be addressed.
Clearly, no simple, single uniform approach can be applied with the expectation that significant improvements of the system will occur. Indeed, any strategy for change must contend with the diverse factors affecting the education system, the interactions of its parts, and the intricate interdependencies within it and with its environment.
As we consider these problems, we become increasingly cognizant of the various possibilities of using concepts and methods of the study of complex systems for providing direction and strategies to facilitate the introduction of viable and successful changes. A key insight from complex systems is that simple solutions are not likely to be effective in cases such as the education system, and that providing a balance or coexistence of what seem to be opposites may provide the greatest opportunities for successful courses of action.
In the following we consider Integrating the commonly polarized goals of education; i. Adapting teaching to different student characteristics by using diverse methods of teaching. Adaptation to the ability levels, patterns Facilitating the teaching learning process through different abilities, learning styles, personality characteristics, and cultural backgrounds.
Integrating the curriculum by developing inter-disciplinary curriculum units that enable students to acquire knowledge from different disciplines through a unifying theme while having the opportunity to contribute in different and special ways to the objectives of the integrated units.
Educational Goals The approaches to teaching can be categorized according to major educational goals that affect teaching strategies.
On one hand the goal of education is viewed as the transmission of knowledge by the teachers to the students. The convergent approach is highly structured and teacher-centered; the students are passive recipients of knowledge transmitted to them and learning achievements are measured by standardized tests.
The divergent approach is flexible, student-centered, where the students are active participants in the learning process and learning achievements are assessed by a variety of evaluation tools such as self-evaluation in parallel to teacher evaluation; documentation portfolios; and special projects see also Niche Selection link to be added soon.
Still, the tendency in the education system of today is toward the convergent approach. In fact, among the current suggestions for implementing educational reforms to deal with the considerable problems of the education system, there has been a strong emphasis on setting convergent goals, an aspect of which is the use of across-the-board standardized testing.
Testing has been commonly viewed as a prudent way to determine the success or failure of the teaching and learning process.
There has been a relatively limited use of other means of evaluation which are more complicated and more demanding in terms of application and interpretation.
Educators who stress the importance of the acquisition of specific knowledge as a useful way to prepare the students for productive future functioning, must come to realize that even for the purpose of this goal alone, a divergent approach is needed today.
On the other hand, those who emphasize the importance of autonomous growth and creative self-expression, must realize that the students need academic skills such as reading, writing, calculating, etc. Since the creative process involves new ways of using existing knowledge, it is important to provide opportunities for students to acquire such knowledge which can be acquired by convergent teaching.
Hence, convergent and divergent teaching strategies are both needed and the challenging question is how to find the balance between them within the complexity of the process of teaching and learning. It is likely that the two approaches may increasingly become not mutually exclusive but interrelated and interdependent.
An important development is the growing awareness that academic achievement could improve by adapting teaching to students individual differences. In general, adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching tends to be limited.
The students are all expected to strive toward one goal of learning specified required knowledge; some may attain it and others may fall by the wayside or be given some remediation with limited results. Nevertheless, there are various possibilities of effective adaptation to individual differences under convergent teaching.
Even when all the students are taught the same material, teachers can use different methods, different techniques or different media, to cater to individual differences in abilities and personality characteristics.
As the students experience success and consequently a sense of competence, their motivation is enhanced to pursue further learning. Such an approach has a better potential for success than the common reality of students with learning difficulties, who often struggle through remediation with a sense of inadequacy and discouraging experiences of failure.
Adaptation to individual differences under divergent teaching may be expected to be productive because of its emphasis on student autonomous, active, self-reliant learning.
Yet, there are students who may not function well under divergent conditions because of their strong need for guidance, direction, and structure.
Divergent teaching can cater to such needs by individual guidance, along with ongoing assessment and subsequent modifications. Teaching Strategies and Students Characteristics Among the most difficult problems faced by the education system are those associated with teaching effectiveness. The current preparation of teachers for specific age levels, specific subject matter, specific academic skills, etc.
There is a strong need to train teachers to adapt instruction to the diverse student abilities, learning styles, personality traits and needs by using more differentiated teaching strategies See also Complexity in the Classroom link to be added soon.
In addition to the preparation of teachers to more differentiated teaching, there could be more divergent use of teaching resources. Worthwhile teaching can be done with advantageous results by persons other than the traditional classroom teachers.
For example, valuable teaching can be done by peers of different ages and abilities.
Also, parents, grandparents, and relatives could participate in and contribute productively to the teaching process. Furthermore, teaching can be enhanced by volunteers, retirees, people with various areas of expertise from the worlds of science, business, engineering, medicine, public service, entertainment, and others.
Also, high-tech resources such as multimedia technology, computer programs, telecommunication, the Internet, audio-visual techniques, and others can provide beneficial options. Student learning can be greatly enriched further by traveling - near and far; interaction with people of different cultures; different geographical areas; different occupations, different ways of life; different outlooks.
Ability levels and patterns of different abilities.A First Course in Linear Algebra is an introductory textbook designed for university sophomores and juniors. Typically such a student will have taken calculus, but this is not a prerequisite. The book begins with systems of linear equations, then covers matrix algebra, before taking up finite-dimensional vector spaces in full generality.
Depending on your position, you may have more or less responsibility for the design of the learning experiences of your students. Many sessional staff, for example, are primarily involved in the delivery of tutorials, seminars, and demonstrations, and the grading of student assessment.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed heartoftexashop.comion frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves.
Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any. Education is a in a constant state of change, whether due to shifting demographics, policy changes, or new technology.
Not only does this force teachers to continually modify their approach, it compels teams of teachers to continually work together to collectively adapt and assimilate teaching strategies..
So it’s no accident that you’re finding yourself in a series of meetings and. In this teaching article, Katie McKnight reveals how graphic organizers are important and effective pedagogical tools for organizing content and ideas and facilitating learners’ comprehension of newly acquired information.
CURRICULUM GUIDE: TEACHING & FACILITATING LEARNING - LEVEL I THE FIRST DAY Essential Content Discussion Topics and Key Points Instructor’s demeanor • Teacher’s behavior sets the tone for the course.