King and Kitchenerp. Show respect for students' assumptions, regardless of the developmental stage s they exhibit.
People sharing ideas and working together occasionally sharing resources in a loose environment Cooperation People doing things together, but each with his or her own purpose Community People striving for a common purpose This continuum of involvement provides a useful framework for thinking about scaffolding with learners through progressively more complex interaction skills leading to the creation of an effective working group.
He notes that while it is not realistic to expect community in many online courses, it should be possible in graduate level programs with high learner-learner contact.
In the MDE program that provides the context for this paper, acquisition of skills associated with collaborative learning is an explicit goal.
Courses have little static content, other than a comprehensive syllabus and course outline, and are heavily driven by interaction among learners and between instructor and learners. The study described in this paper is a form of reflective practice in that it considers the literature and data from the program for the purpose of informing these discussions.
Objectives and Research Hypothesis The initial objective of the study was to determine whether grading collaborative projects is positively related to higher student participation levels in small group work.
The hypothesis leading to the research was that student participation levels would be higher in small group work where group projects were graded as compared to those where they were not graded. The results from the investigation of this main hypothesis led to a post-hoc research question about factors other than grading that might positively influence participation in collaborative learning in small groups.
These factors are discussed in the latter half of the paper. WebTycho supports asynchronous dialogue using main conference threads as well as collaboration for smaller groups within a study group area using synchronous online chat and collaborative documents See Figure 1.
The Foundations of Distance Education MDE course is intended to provide graduate students with a foundation of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for them to become competent practitioners of distance education. This initial, introductory course to the MDE program has been offered continuously since during each university semester — spring, summer, and fall; at times, more than one section has been offered per semester.
The course is structured into four modules with a main conference posting area for each module.
This paper provides an overview of current approaches to evaluating library instruction and students' achievement of educational outcomes, describing the most commonly used evaluation measures among libraries and presenting pros and cons or benefits and barriers of each. Strategies to Support Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Needs of Students Roger P. Weissberg, PhD Evaluation and intervention from multiple perspectives. A Caring, Connected, Responsible, Adults and students model SEL skills and discuss relevant situations (teachable moments). () present the six typologies of interactions namely student-student, student-instructor, student-content, instructor-instructor, instructor-content and content-content interactions that serve as the basis of educational process in online learning environment.
Smaller study group areas with three to six students can be found in the study group conferences, which are only accessible by the instructor and the student members of the respective study group. The MDE course includes two study group projects: In the first module, students collaborate within their individual study groups to articulate and present a group definition of distance education.
They then present the results of their collaborative efforts in a group paper. Data was gathered from fifteen sections of MDEfrom to The collaborative work in module 1 has never been graded and the collaborative work in module 4 of the first 13 sections of the course offered during the period covered by this study spring to summer was not graded.
However, during this time detailed instructor feedback for group projects was provided. In the sections of fall and springfaculty began to assign a formal grade after repeated requests by students to have this second group project graded.
The group projects were then assigned a cumulative grade based on the following: During the period for which data was collected, the number of students within a course section ranged from 13 to 35, with an average of 20 students per section, and the study groups comprised on average four to five students each.
The content and instructions for the collaborative group project assignments in modules 1 and 4 were consistent over this period. For the purposes of the study, the following data was collected for each of the 15 course sections: Calculations were made for each course section as follows: All of these figures are presented in Table 1.
Findings When comparing study group behaviour between module 1 and module 4 within each course section, it was found that participation levels during the second study group project were on average 2. This finding for sections where neither group project was graded spring to summer was expected because the study group project in module 4 is significantly more complex and work-intensive than the project in module 1, requiring more interaction among group members.
However, this was not the case.
When the second group project was graded fall and springparticipation levels during the second study group project were on average 1. To further control for the varying levels of participation activity as measured by of postings that naturally occur between course sections, participation levels between graded and non-graded sections of the course were compared by considering the level of activity within module 4 in the context of total activity in both modules within each section of the course.
The initial findings in fall did not support the original hypothesis that participation levels would increase when the module 4 project was graded; these findings were further reinforced in spring In both of these sections, which had a grade assigned to the second study group project, student participation levels remained consistent with those in previous sections where there had been no grading.
These preliminary findings do not show an immediate benefit in assigning grades to the collaborative study group project, but this is based on only two sections of the course that have had graded projects.
A greater number of cohorts and a more extensive statistical analysis are required before any firm conclusions can be reached. In addition to the main findings, it was revealed that in general students participated more in study groups than in the larger main conferences.
It could thus be concluded that some students prefer small group interaction to interaction within larger class conferences; however, additional research would be necessary to further support this claim.
Based on the preliminary data, it was also hypothesized that although students may have the will to participate in collaborative projects, the skills to effectively engage in online collaboration are often lacking.section entitled Assessing and Evaluating Student Learning, pages • The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to inform Students are encouraged to reflect on their own growth, considering progress, strengths and weaknesses, and goals.
Recognize Who Your Students Are. skills, beliefs, and concepts that significantly influence what they notice about the environment and how they organize and interpret it. This, in turn, affects their abilities to remember, reason, solve problems, and acquire new knowledge." Online Information System for Evaluating Graduate Students.
Learning Principles In fact, many studies have shown that the climate we create has implications for our students. A negative climate may impede learning and performance, but a positive climate can energize students’ learning. Online Information System for Evaluating Graduate Students Mellon College of Science.
Teach students strategies for systematically gathering data, assessing the relevance of the data, evaluating data sources, and making interpretive judgments based on the available data. Give students frequent feedback, and provide both cognitive and emotional support for their efforts.
Strategies to Support Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Needs of Students Roger P. Weissberg, PhD Evaluation and intervention from multiple perspectives.
A Caring, Connected, Responsible, Adults and students model SEL skills and discuss relevant situations (teachable moments).