The Black Death moved through Europe astonishingly fast. Take a look at some of the stops on its path. HowStuffWorks Because Europe was trading with the East, some medieval Europeans were aware of a mysterious disease sweeping through Asia in the s. InKaffa, a town in modern-day Ukraine that was a Genoese trading post, came under attack by a Tartar army.
Medieval Inquisition While the witch trials only really began in the 15th century, with the start of the early modern periodmany of their causes[ citation needed ] had been developing during the previous centuries, with the prosecution of heresy by the Medieval Inquisition during the late twelfth and the thirteenth centuries, and during the Late Medieval periodduring which the idea of witchcraft or sorcery gradually changed and adapted.
The inquisition had the office of protecting Christians against the "internal" threat of heresy as opposed to "external" military threats such as those of the Vikingsthe Mongolsand the Saracens or Turks. Witches by Hans Baldung Grien Woodcut, During the High Middle Agesa number of heretical Christian groups, such as the Cathars and the Knights Templar had been accused of performing such anti-Christian activities as Satanism, sodomy and malevolent sorcery in France.
While the nucleus of the early modern "witch craze" would turn out to be popular superstition in the Western Alpsreinforced by theological rationale developed at or following the Council of Basel of the s, what has been called "the first real witch trial in Europe,"  the accusation of Alice Kyteler inoccurred in 14th-century Irelandduring the turmoils associated with the decline of Norman control.
The catalog of typical charges that would later be leveled at witches, of spreading diseases, committing orgies sometimes incestuouscannibalizing childrenand following Satanismemerged during the 14th century as crimes attributed to heretics and Jews.
Witchcraft had not been considered a heresy during the High Medieval period. Indeed, since the Council of Paderborn ofthe belief in the possibility of witchcraft itself was considered heretical.
While witch-hunts only became common afteran important legal step that would make this development possible occurred inwhen Pope John XXII authorized the inquisition to prosecute witchcraft as a type of heresy. This Church Council, which had been attended by such anti-witchcraft figures as Johann Nider and Martin Le Franchelped to standardize the stereotype of the Satanic witch that would be propagated throughout the rest of the trials.
Works published in this vein included Johannes Nider 's Formicarius c. In the bull, which is sometimes referred to as the "Witch-Bull of ", the witches were explicitly accused of having "slain infants yet in the mother's womb" abortion and of "hindering men from performing the sexual act and women from conceiving" contraception[ dubious — discuss ].
Inthe North Berwick witch trials occurred in Scotland, and were of particular note as the king, James VIbecame involved himself.
James had developed a fear that witches planned to kill him after he suffered from storms whilst traveling to Denmark in order to claim his bride, Anneearlier that year. Returning to Scotland, the king heard of trials that were occurring in North Berwick and ordered the suspects to be brought to him—he subsequently believed that a nobleman, Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwellwas a witch, and after the latter fled in fear of his life, he was outlawed as a traitor.
The king subsequently set up royal commissions to hunt down witches in his realm, recommending torture in dealing with suspects, and in he wrote a book about the menace that witches posed to society entitled Daemonologie.
The Geneva Bible which precedes the King James version by 51 years includes the term "witch" in Exodus Protests against early modern witch trials Even throughout the 16th century, there had been isolated expressions of scepticism regarding the trial, increasing throughout the 17th century.
Inthe Roman Inquisition acknowledged that it had "found scarcely one trial conducted legally". In the Nordic countries, the late 17th century saw the peak of the trials in a number of areas: The Salem witch trials were a brief outburst of witch hysteria in the New World while the practice was waning in Europe.
In the s Winifred King Benham and her daughter Winifred were thrice tried for witchcraft in Wallingford, Connecticutthe last of such trials in New England. Jane Wenham was among the last subjects of a typical witch trial in England inbut was pardoned after her conviction and set free.
The last execution for witchcraft in England took place inwhen Mary Hicks and her daughter Elizabeth were hanged. Janet Horne was executed for witchcraft in Scotland in The Witchcraft Act put an end of the traditional form of witchcraft as a legal offense in Britain.MORGELLONS EPIDEMIOLOGY ( REVISED ): Transmission and Dispersion: The spread and propagation of this Morgellons live form, which is likely a filamentous microorganism, can occur at any time, usually, via oblong black filaments (wildtype form).
But germination, further growth, activity and infectiousness require the right environmental conditions (pH, temperatures, moisture). The Black Death was an epidemic which ravaged Europe between and It was a disease spread through contact with animals, basically through fleas and other rat parasites (at that time, rats often coexisted with humans, thus allowing the disease to spread so quickly).
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be naturally transmitted between animals (usually vertebrates) and humans..
Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are.
Latest environmental news, features and updates. Pictures, video and more. Contributing Factors on the Spread of the Black Plague in Europe PAGES 2.
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