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Name of Poland The origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans Polanie that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century.
The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole" field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites Lechiciwhich derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.
During this time, the Lusatian culturespanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent.
The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement now reconstructed as an open-air museumdating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about BC to AD. Also, recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland.
The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.
Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko Iaccepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland inas the new official religion of his subjects.
The bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. The significance of the event was documented by Gallus Anonymus in his chronicle. InKonrad I of Masoviaone of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.
Inthe Statute of Kalisz or the General Charter of Jewish Liberties introduced numerous right for the Jews in Poland, leading to a nearly autonomous "nation within a nation". His son, Casimir III reigned —70has a reputation as one of the greatest Polish kings, and gained wide recognition for improving the country's infrastructure.
He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's civil and criminal laws, — The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military supportthe king made a series of concessions to the nobility, and establishing their legal status as superior to that of the townsmen.
When Casimir the Great died inleaving no legitimate male heir, the Piast dynasty came to an end. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Poland became a destination for German, Flemish and to a lesser extent Walloon, Danish and Scottish migrants.
The Black Deatha plague that ravaged Europe from to did not significantly affect Poland, and the country was spared from a major outbreak of the disease.
Jagiellon dynasty Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knightsand resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland15 July The partnership brought vast Lithuania -controlled Rus' areas into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for the Poles and Lithuanians, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries.
In the Baltic Sea region the struggle of Poland and Lithuania with the Teutonic Knights continued and culminated in the Battle of Grunwaldwhere a combined Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive victory against them.
The Jagiellon dynasty at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia onwards and Hungary. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar slave-raiding cost Poland-Lithuania one million of its population between the years of and The royal residence is an early example of Renaissance architecture in Poland.
Poland was developing as a feudal state, with a predominantly agricultural economy and an increasingly powerful landed nobility. The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm parliament intransferred most of the legislative power from the monarch to the Sejm, an event which marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility.
Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads into Polish Christianity, which resulted in the establishment of policies promoting religious tolerance, unique in Europe at that time. Another major figure associated with the era is the classicist poet Jan Kochanowski.
History of Poland in the Early Modern era —Crown of the Kingdom of PolandPolish—Lithuanian Commonwealthand Sarmatism The Warsaw Confederation passed by the Polish national assembly Sejm Konwokacyjnyextended religious freedoms and tolerance in the Commonwealthand was the first of its kind act in Europe, 28 January The Union of Lublin established the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealtha more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchybut which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament.
The Warsaw Confederation guaranteed religious freedom for the Polish nobility Szlachta and burgesses Mieszczanie. Inthe Tsar of Russia paid homage to the King of Poland.
From the middle of the 17th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thereby leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention. Starting inthe Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising engulfed the south and east, eventually leaving Ukraine divided, with the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, becoming a dependency of the Tsardom of Russia.
This was followed by the 'Deluge'a Swedish invasion of Poland, which marched through the Polish heartlands and ruined the country's population, culture and infrastructure—around four million of Poland's eleven million inhabitants died in famines and epidemics throughout the 17th century.
Sobieski's reign marked the end of the nation's golden era. Finding itself subjected to almost constant warfare and suffering enormous population losses as well as massive damage to its economy, the Commonwealth fell into decline. The government became ineffective as a result of large-scale internal conflicts e.Feb 03, · Google And The Future Of Supply Chain.
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